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Adiabatic calorimetry

Adiabatic, or, more precisely, pseudo-adiabatic calorimetry is one of the main experimental methods used for investigation of reactive hazards in general and one of the most typical methods applied for getting data for emergency relief systems (ERS) design. Nowadays adiabatic calorimentry is successfully applieed for assessing hazards of Li-Iion batteries.

Several manufacturers offer commercial adiabatic calorimeters. The well known examples are Fauske VSP and RSST, THT ARC, HEL Phi-TEC I and II, NETZSCH ARC and APTAC. Most resent and very promising instrument has been introduced by Omnical Inc. (USA) - it is the Differential Accelerating Rate Calorimeter DARC which allows running experiments at very low thermal inertia.

Adiabatic data are used either for kinetics evaluation with the following hazard assessment, simulation of runaway and sizing vent, or for evaluation of specific information which is required for applying some or other approximate analytical approaches for ERS design. Irrespective of how adiabatic data will be utilized the accuracy of all the subsequent results essentially depends on the correctness of the methods used for data processing and interpreting.

The theoretical basis of adiabatic calorimetry was created by Townsend and Tou and others more than 40 years ago. Since then countless papers devoted to various aspects of this method have been published. Therefore it may seem that all the problems dealing with adiabatic experiment were resolved long ago – it is safe to say that every commercial device is supplied with the methods and software for data analysis.

Nevertheless there remain still some serious issues concerning data processing that should be revised or completely reworked.

CISP experts made essential efforts towards resolving these issues and achieved many novel results that provided the solid basis for developing the analog-free methods and ADaExpert software for comprehensive analysis of adiabatic data. Serious attention has also been paid to design of advanced methods of kinetics evaluation based on adiabatic data. They are introduced in ForK and DesK kinetic packages allowing a user to get reliable kinetic models for simulation-based hazard assessment. All these applications belong to the unique Thermal Safety Software (TSS) series.

Some examples of applying TSS for analysing adiabatic data can be found in CISP Newsletters (see ## 8, 9, 10)

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Cheminform St.Petersburg (CISP), Russian Federation


 

Overview of adiabatic calorimetry